GUIDE D’HAÏTI

Donnons un sens à notre si beau pays....

Un paradis négligé...

Pour nous joindre :




BIENVENUE SUR NOTRE SITE
















Accueil > DEPARTEMENTS D’HAITI > OUEST > ARCAHAIE > DECOUVERTE > ARCAHAIE

DÉCOUVERTE DE LA COMMUNE DE L’ARCAHAIE

Arcahaie


Arcahaie (Lakayè en créole) est une commune de la république d’Haïti située dans le département de l’Ouest et le chef-lieu de l’arrondissement d’Arcahaie.

La commune est peuplée de 118 501 habitants (recensement par estimation de 2009).

Histoire

Cette ville est célèbre pour avoir accueilli le 18 mai 1803 le congrès de l’Arcahaie qui donna lieu à la création du drapeau national haïtien par le père de la patrie, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, en arrachant le blanc du drapeau français et fit coudre le bleu et le rouge par Catherine Flon pour symboliser l’union des noirs et de mulâtres.

Administration

La commune est composée des sections communales de :
Boucassin
Fonds Baptiste
Des Vases (dont le quartier « Saintard »)
Montrouis
Délices
Matheux

Monuments et sites

Le Fort Drouet fait partie d’une vingtaine d’ouvrages militaires construits sur le territoire d’Haïti après l’indépendance en 1804 : ce système défensif était dirigé contre une éventuelle offensive des Français, anciens maîtres de la colonie de Saint-Domingue.

Références

Population totale, par sexe et population de 18 ans et plus estimées en 2009, au niveau des différentes unités géographiques sur le site de l’Institut haïtien de statistique et d’informatique (IHSI)

Bibliographie
Moreau de Saint-Méry, Description topographique, physique, civile, politique et historique de la partie française de l’isle Saint-Domingue, Philadelphie, Paris, Hambourg, 1797-1798, (réédition, 3 volumes, Paris, Société française d’histoire d’outre-mer, 1984), pp.920-935.

Liens externes
Population totale, population de 18 ans et plus, ménages et densités estimés en 2009 sur le site de l’Institut haïtien de statistique et d’informatique (IHSI)
(Philippe Châtelain, architecte, et Daniel Élie, architecte / ISPAN, « Fort Drouet et logements d’esclaves », dans Le Nouvelliste, 11 août 2009


English}


Arcahaie (Lakay in Creole) is a town in the Republic of Haiti located in the Western Department and the chief town of the district of Arcahaie.

Population

The town has a population of 118 501 inhabitants (census estimate of 2009).

History

Catherine FlonThis city is famous for hosting the May 18, 1803 Congress Arcahaie which gave rise to the creation of the Haitian national flag by the father of his country, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, tearing off the white of the French flag and gave sewing blue and red by Catherine Flon to symbolize the union of blacks and mulattos.

In our gallery of female celebrities and our heroes, a place apart, we think he should be made to Catherine Flon, Cecile Fatiman, priestess well known Bois-Caiman, and Parade. Whichever way one looks, in fact, these women seem to owe their fame to the fact of a particular action, which for most obviously, does not seem to take less, even in their journey, a unique, fleeting, with no real overnight. Everything happens as if all this whole time who saw their glory, they mattered little to the biographical and even less experienced these guarantors of Fame that are continuity, consistency, scope, which in this case , have their usual role as a base of the famous and widely willingly cede to the more exciting with a gesture which, occurring unexpectedly, at a key moment, capital and seized the name, perpetuates and sees it as definitively associated with a situation that will, by a just reward, as the task of evoking in turn. So will he of Catherine Flon Grotte de l'arcahaie which will bequeathed his name to posterity, and, beyond that time capital of the Congress in May 1803 Arcahaie, forever linked to the Haitian flag and this, the simple fact that, volunteering to join the two bands of a flag on a war footing, it will need the essential gesture, this gesture is crying by the time that how fertile thus enabling a symbol to express themselves, born on the day.

Two versions of history selected :

1) "In the eyes of the ignorant masses of blacks, the tricolor flag symbolized the union of the three classes of the colony : White, Yellow, Black. From a quick gesture, Dessalines removed the white color. Catherine Flon would then met the blue stripes and red and have sewn using her hair as thread. (1)

2) The second version is that a girl was abused by Dessalines on a settler’s house where she remained as a servant in a clear effort to report what was happening. Dessalines had seen his daughter in blood, would have torn her blue skirt, took his red scarf and asked Catherine Flon them together and saying : "Never, never, not a French strike our girls. Liberty or Death. " We present this version in favor of the argument that the blue Haitian flag is not identical in french blue.

(1) JC Dorsainvil, History of Haiti.

Administration

The municipality is composed of community sections of :

Boucassin
Baptist funds
Vases (whose headquarters "Saintard)
Montrouis

Delights
Mathematicians

Monuments and Sites

Fort Drouet is part of a twenty military works constructed in the territory of Haiti after independence in 1804 : this defensive system was directed against a possible French offensive, former masters of the colony of Santo Domingo.

References

Total population by sex and population 18 years and over estimated in 2009 at different geographical units [archive] on the website of the Haitian Institute of Statistics and Informatics (IHSI)

Bibliography

Moreau de St. Mery, Description topographic, physical, civic, political and history of the French island of St. Domingo, Philadelphia, Paris, Hamburg, 1797-1798, (reprint, 3 volumes, Paris, French Society of history overseas, 1984), pp.920-935.

External Links

Total population, population aged 18 and over, households and densities estimated in 2009 at the site of the Haitian Institute of Statistics and Informatics (IHSI)

Philippe Chatelain, architect, and Daniel Elie, architect / ISPAN, "Fort Drouet and housing slaves" in the new, August 11, 2009

Here is the article in question in full :

Haiti : Fort Drouet and housing of slaves

arcadins
[...] ISPAN technicians were able to identify, in fact, a military construction and three coffee houses. This is the very Drouet, ruins of the house coffee Dion and those of two other coffee houses whose original names and constructive parts in the current phase of research and knowledge, have not yet been established with certainty.

Fort Drouet

On August 3, 2009, a technical team of the Institute for the Protection of National Heritage (ISPAN) went on a reconnaissance mission in the chain of Matheux on the heights of Delights, 5th communal section of Arcahaie.

Taking advantage of the construction of the new road that will link soon Cabaret at La Chapelle, Artibonite, which already allows easy access to a region that has been in the late eighteenth century, an important area of coffee production, ISPAN undertook this mission in order to investigate, discover and identify in situ the remains of many agricultural and military installations that have been reported in texts and archival memories.

This spectacular road that leads quickly from Cazale more than 1300 meters above sea level, offers breathtaking views of both the Gulf of Gonave and the Artibonite valley that crosses the river magestieusement the same name . This road, although not yet covered with asphalt, already allows access in less than an hour at the top of the mountain chain Matheux.

On the occasion of this mission, technicians were able to identify ISPAN, indeed, a military construction and three coffee houses. This is the very Drouet, ruins of the house coffee Dion and those of two other coffee houses whose original names and constructive parts in the current phase of research and knowledge, have not yet been established with certainty.

Fort Drouet

Leaving the vehicle instead Kotad said, is accessed by a path Drouet strong peak after one hour walk. Built after the proclamation of independence by an order of Dessalines from March 1804, this fort is a part, with the citadel Henry, Fort Delpech, the fortress of Platos, Fort Garit, Fort Oge, strong Jacques Alexander and so on., the score of fortifications designed and implemented throughout the country to cope with a possible return of the French offensive (See BULLETIN ISPAN No. 3, Fortifications of Marchand-Dessalines, the first Party

[1]). It is an imposing structure made of a thick wall, making some places more than five feet high, pierced with many loopholes for rifle fire and cannon embrasures. These walls surround a parade ground on which are made of a magazine classic high masonry and two tanks for water storage. Two iron cannons strewn alongside the ground pretending to wait their final position. A third is placed in a recess of the facade. Placed on a dominant position on a hill, this fortress to five bastions, the plan closely resembles that of the fort to Ms. Marchand-Dessalines, controls a very large area and acts as lookout for his views on both the Gulf Gonave and the Artibonite valley. The fort lays Drouet, also eye contact with the high Delpech located to the west in the hills overlooking Willliamson and Carrie.

Located in an important area of coffee production, the fort was built just above a large coffee house, dating, obviously, the French colonial period and whose imposing ruins distinguish two huge buildings. The first is characterized by large rooms equipped with multiple stacks. These rooms could be used to treat shops coffee beans. The second, placed below and which is accessed by a monumental staircase, overlooks the Gulf of Gonave and offers off an impressive view of the coast and the plains of Arcahaie. It would be the big-box housing, the residence of the colon.

At the entrance of the road leading to Fort Drouet Kotad to lie the remains of another large coffee house. The vegetation covering the ruins make it difficult to read overall. However, we can see clearly the remains of two circular channels husking mills ("hulling") of dried beans and the bedrock of what might have been the big-box housing. One can still clearly read the inscriptions carefully carved in stone the northwest corner of the basement "FPT Lasaline "," 31 AOUST 1791 "(the date of construction ?) And letters intertwined to form a decorative pattern.

Housing Dion

From the information gathered from local residents and pursuing the road towards La Chapelle for about ten minutes eastbound, the team ISPAN then went to a place called Kadyon, where she was able discover the remains of the largest coffee plant identified so far in the colonial countries. Its importance exceeds the area of housing Seguineau, located near Fond-Baptiste and that of Beaucher in Marmelade, listed a few years ago by ISPAN.

Housing Dion revolves around huge ice covering an approximate area of 4200 square meters. It contains the ruins of the café itself, tanks fed by rainwater pipes and a building which was probably used for storage.

On a nearby hill overlooking the whole, one can see the foundations of a structure that would be those of the big-box housing. Further investigations will confirm the precise function of these ruins.

However, the most surprising discovery of this visit Housing Dion was located in the sunken glazes, in overtime to the east, where there are arranged around a large central courtyard, three identical buildings built strong masonry measuring about 32 meters long and 5 meters wide. They each consist of 7 cells by about 4 meters by 4 meters : These are homes slave housing. In these three buildings, one must add two more body building housing dwellings of slaves and also consisting of four rows of cells each. Both buildings are located at the western entrance of the house.

These constructions are undoubtedly the largest housing complex identified so slaves in Haiti today !

It is important to remember that the coffee culture has emerged in Santo Domingo to the 1740s and spread at lightning speed through the colony. She settled in the foothills and peaks of mountains (full maroonage territory), where she found the ideal climate for its development. On the eve of the revolution 50 years later, the coffee came even compete with sugar, a commodity par excellence of the colony. Then in 1750 it produced 7 million pounds of coffee in 1789, already, we reached a record 77 million pounds. The largest coffee producing areas of the colony were in the shaft Price Conservation - Marmalade - Dondon in the north, in the chain of Matheux in the heights of Cabaret to Guava, near Saint-Marc, and the southern slopes of the Massif de la Selle.

If the sugar plantations in the plains, the slaves enjoyed the luxury of building their own homes they eventually meet in real small villages in the hills, they were treated as real convicts, locked in a prison and undergoing permanent control of the commanders, under the watchful eye of the colon. This explains the nature of prison architecture housing slaves coffee houses. Cells Housing Dion perfectly illustrate this condition of servitude.

The development of the use of coffee by the colonists of Santo Domingo was finally discontinued during the unrest of the revolution. After a brief and unsuccessful attempt to defend these facilities against the devastating incursions of the rebels by the construction of lookouts, job monitoring, blocklaus and the creation of armed militias, the settlers dismantled their facilities and finally migrated with their numerous slaves to New Orleans and especially in the eastern part of Cuba. In the province of Oriente in Cuba, the French colonists and their slaves reproduced the coffee houses of San Domingo on the slopes of the Sierras around Santiago and radically transformed the region both in economic and cultural level. Entire collection of relics of these coffee houses of Cuba has been classified as World Heritage by UNESCO in 2000 under the name "Franco-cafetales Haitians."

By the layers of use they have created a few decades of existence, these dwellings of colonial slaves coffee houses should be the subject of archaeological investigations that would bring to light aspects of completely unknown Slavery in Saint-Domingue. Coffee houses in the chain of colonial Matheux particularly housing Dion is an extraordinary wealth of information on the daily lives of slaves from Santo Domingo (2).

August 5, 2009
Philippe Chatelain, architect, and Daniel Elie, architect / ISPAN

Notes

1. BULLETIN OF ISPAN is available free on the Internet in PDF format, with a nomination form sent to the Service Promotion Institute via the following address :

bulletin.ispan @ gmail.com

2. 2. This exploratory mission to ISPAN Matheux was composed by Philippe Chatelain, architect, Elsoit Colas, engineer, and Daniel Elie, architect. It was created as a result of valuable information to ISPAN by Jan-Moris Buteau on the exact location of the ruins of the house and those of Dion strong Drouet.

Philippe Chatelain and Daniel Elie, architects


LOCALISATION